So-called "carbon" forks are made from carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP or CRP). Some manufacturers call this type of plastic "composite," others use the slightly inaccurate terms "carbon fiber" or plain "carbon." Marketing teams (not engineers) determine which term is used in the ad copy on the web or in the catalog. For practical purposes, the "carbon" Trek, Specialized and Giant forks you mentioned are all made from the same stuff.
As an aside, some forks are made entirely of CFRP, while other CFRP forks use aluminum or steel in their steerer and/or dropouts. The term "composite" doesn't normally (and shouldn't) refer to these CFRP-and-metal forks.
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