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I hope someone will be willing to take some time to give me advice. I bought a 2004 Specialized S-works E5 from a friend 2 years ago. My friend had replaced the frame and some parts, but the drivetrain is all Shimano 600 series with only 8 speeds. My right shifter is failing and needs to be replaced, and I would like to put on a compact crankset. Of course I will be replacing my shifters, crankset, bottom bracket, cassette, and chain, but will my old front and rear deraillers and rear hub work with the jump to 10 speeds and a compact crankset? Also, I am unsure of my bottom bracket needs. I know Specialized uses English threads, but I have been unable to determine the width.

Lastly, I was thinking 105 or Ultegra, will I experience a big difference between the two? Thanks.
 

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The shifters, cassette, and chain will all need to be 10-speed. The old hub and derailleurs should work (if the RD was D-A then you'd have a problem, but 600 should work fine). You could have a maximum capacity (chainwrap) problem with the derailleurs if your gearing range is too wide. If it was me I'd go with either a 50/36 or 48/34 chainring set.

The bottom bracket must be compatible with the crankset, English threads are common.

105 components are generally good enough for anyone. Ultegra are a bit better, it's up to you and you can mix Ultegra with 105 components since you'll have a double crankset, Ultegra shifters are double/triple specific.

Al
 

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Specialized uses English bottom brackets. There are two English bottom bracket widths that I know of: 68mm and 73mm. 73mm is used on mountain bikes. I do not know of any road bike that uses 73mm English bottom brackets. All road bikes, as far as I know, use 68mm bottom brackets. All English bottom brackets have right-hand threads on the non-drive side and left-hand threads on the drive side.

Italian bottom brackets are 70mm and the threads are right-handed on both sides.
 
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