There isn't any, it depends on too many variables. You'll figure it out the hard way the first and then you'll know. Variables include how much you ride/how you shift, how your bike is cabled, how well you take care of it/wash it, the conditions you ride in. There is no 'schedule'. Since my background is being a team mechanic I over do it, but I've never had any cable issues...ever.
Casssettes and chains? Again it depends on all those things plus an additional variable. Do you want to replace chains before they get much wear and use the same cassette and rings for a long time (poor mans tactic) or do you want to wear everything out together and replace it all at the same time (rich man who doesn't care tactic)?
I replace my rear shifter cable every 6 months & front shifter cable once a year. I live west of Denver and ride in the foothills 260+ days a year, so I do a lot more shifting than someone living in Kansas or Oklahoma. I replace my rear shifter housing every couple years and replace the front housing even less. I basically never replace the brake cables or housing.
The reason I replace my shifter cables so often, is because I've had the sinker break off the cable and ruin a Shimano shifter.
I replace my chain every six months, my cassette when a new chain makes it skip, and my chainrings basically never.
The most important parts to replace are cables & chains, and remember to log when you replace parts, because time flies and before you know it, you've ruined a cassette.
I'm really impressed by how long Shimano brake pads last, considering how well they perform, so look at them every now and then.
I think cxwrench misspoke by calling "the smart mans tactic" the "poor mans tactic".
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